to quit VIi: go to INSERT in the place of the cursor I: go to INSERT mode at the beginning of the line a: append after the cursor A: append at the end of line o: open a new line below the current line O: open a new line in the place of the current line Now, answering the question: exiting. You can exit vi from EX mode: q: if you haven't made any modifications, or saved them beforehand q!: ignores any modifications and quit wq: save and quit x: this is equal to wq w and x accept a file name parameter. If you started vi with a filename, you need not give it here again. At last, the most important: how can you reach EX mode? EX mode is for long commands that you can see typing at the bottom line of the screen. From COMMAND mode, you push colon, :, and a colon will appear at the bottom line, where you can type the above commands. From INSERT mode, you need to push ESC, i.e. the Escape button, going to COMMAND mode, and then: to go to EX mode. If you are unsure, push ESC and that will bring you to command mode. The robust method is ESC-:-x-Enter which saves your file and quits.M"
Here is what the above code is Doing:
1. It’s opening the file in read mode.
2. It’s reading the file and storing it in a variable.
3. It’s printing the variable.